The former ZIL does not actually exist. Probably in 2021, despite the protests, the last building of the legendary automobile plant will be demolished in Moscow. But a huge legacy remains, and our story is aboutfinal chord. , a unique all-terrain vehicle ZIL-4972.
There are two common misconceptions about this car - that it is a modification of the usual ZIL-130 and that this car was ordered by the Ministry of Emergencies.
In fact, with the ZIL-130 (or rather, with the post-perestroika ZIL-4331), this all-terrain vehicle is related, roughly speaking, only by the cabin, and the roots of its biography should be sought not from the emcheologists, but in the aerospace industry.
History of appearance
Most sources begin the history of this model from 1992, when the Ministry of Emergency Situations allegedly ordered it at ZIL. But the story began earlier, with a letter from the Deputy Minister of Civil Aviation A. M. Goryashko, who in November 1989 turned to the general director of ZIL E.
A. Brakov:Taking into account the experience of your enterprise in creating a search and rescue complex for the EGAPSS USSR, I ask you to consider the issue of creating in 1990 models of passenger and cargo search and rescue vehicles for the search and rescue flight support service and the possibility of their serial production since 1991 year with an annual production of 250-300 cars. .
About what suchsearch and rescue complex for EGAPSS USSRsays the official? Of course, about legendaryBluebird, developed in the Zilovsky Design Bureau under the direction of V.A.
Grachev for the evacuation of cosmonauts who landed in a hard-to-reach area. To put it in simple words, civil aviation needed a similar machine - albeit simpler, land, but with high maneuverability. After all, with ordinary airplanes, troubles also happen.
The annex to the letter explained that two cars were needed - a passenger car and a truck. The passenger car must carry up to 25 people, and the cargo one must be equipped with a crane that can lift up to 3.4 tons and have a lifting capacity of at least 4 tons. Both vehicles must be able to be transported by an Il-76 aircraft and a Mi-26 helicopter. The customer also indicated the maximum price he is willing to pay for each car - 55,000 rubles.
The money was good, and the order was interesting, but the times were tough for the plant, so at least one more serious customer was needed to ensure profitability. The plant workers were lucky - promising all-terrain vehicles were interested in the USSR Ministry of Energy. In January 1990, the director of ZIL received another letter in which power engineers asked to develop and launch in the same year (!) An all-terrain vehicle suitable for the creation and maintenance of power lines, that is, for the transportation of building materials and teams involved in these works.
And the State Committee for Emergency Situations (GKChS, now the Ministry of Emergency Situations) joined the project only at the beginning of 1992, having approved the technical requirements for its version of the all-terrain vehicle - vehicles for emergency rescue units. By this time, the concept of this model had already taken shape, and the presence of several customers predetermined the creation of a number of modifications, and as a result, a passenger car (ZIL-497200), a truck with a portal crane fromBluebird(ZIL-497201), a truck with a single-row cab and a manipulator crane behind the cab (ZIL-497202) and the same, but with a manipulator onstern(ZIL-497204), as well as a cargo-passenger 7-seater vehicle with a two-row cab and a manipulator located behind it (ZIL-497205).
How it was made
Looking at this car gives the impression that that the developers did everything possible so that she did not give out her outstandingfillings. . Indeed, it looks like a modification of the usualzilka.
, except that only the spaced wheels of the middle and rear axle attract attention. .. That's it! This car has almost nothing in common with an ordinary ZIL.
From the serial truck ZIL-4331, which replaced the famous ZIL-130, the three-axle all-terrain vehicle received two cab options (one-row for the passenger version and two-row for the truck), as well as a power unit - a ZIL-645 diesel engine with a capacity of 185 liters .
.. with and 9-speed gearbox ZIL-4421. All other elements of the transmission, suspension and chassis were presented to the all-terrain vehicle by the ZIL-4906, that is, the legendary oneBluebird. .
It turned out, if you like, its lightweight, simplified and deprived of the possibility of floating, but extremely passable version.
To synchronize with nodesdonorgear ratios in the box had to be changed, and in the aggregate, the inherited transmission included: gearbox,handout. , final and wheel reducers, as well as cardan drives. The steering had two hydraulic boosters, designed for turning the wheels of the front and rear axles, and a mechanism for retarding the rotation of the axles. Exactly the same as onBluebird.
, on the ZIL-4972, when driving on soft soils, the wheels of the rear axle went almost along the trajectory of the front ones, which ensured a passability unattainable by all-terrain vehicles with one controlled axle.
The equipment was equipped with a pre-heater, which could heat the cab when the engine was not running, and an electric torch device. The passenger compartment was heated by a separate heater and had a stove for heating food. In the front bumper, a self-pulling winch was mounted, driven by a propeller shaft from a power take-off. The electrical system was divided into two subsystems - one, with a voltage of 12/24 V, provided the engine, and the second (24 V) - additional consumers.
Each subsystem had two storage batteries.
How he drives
During numerous tests, ZIL-4972 showed itself as an eminently successful car. Minor improvements were carried out for two to three years, but in general the car was formed almost immediately.
On the off-road, it outplayed KAMAZs comparable in weight and characteristics in terms of specific traction force, and it outperformed almost twice! In addition, the ZIL developed the highest off-road speed and had the smallest turning radius (about 10 m), and where the KAMAZ trucks skidded even in straight-line traffic, the ZIL was able to move and maneuver. This three-axle is being testedjumpedand its brother, the multipurpose ZIL-433410, and the famousUrals. . ..
Here is an excerpt from the magazine Equipment and weapons e describing the final characteristics of ZIL-4972:On state tests, the maximum speed of the ZIL-4972 reached 82.4 km / h, the acceleration time to 60 km / h - 31.3 s. Angle of lateral static stability - 39 ° 26. # 39 ;.
The car confidently overcame steep climbs from 18.3 to 28.3 ° on soggy loams, a dirt road and loose sand. The control fuel consumption when driving on a dry concrete road at a speed of 50 km / h was 25 l / 100 km, the cruising range was 1,000 km. The operational fuel consumption on a dry asphalt highway was 36 l / 100 km, on a wet dirt road - 55 l / 100 km, off-road - 101 l / 100 km, on virgin snow with a depth of more than 400 mm - 330 l / 100 km.
Taking into account the needs of all customers, the annual production of such cars was about 2,000 copies. The development of the production of machines was given to the Pravdinsk plant of radio relay equipment (PZRA). On March 30, 1992, on the basis of the Zilovsky design bureau, which was previously headed by the legendary Grachev, a joint-stock company was establishedAll-terrain vehicle GVA. .
This structure had to deal with the coordination of the complete set of machines with the customer, the transfer of documentation to the PZRA and the sale of finished products.
In 1997, oilmen also became interested in this all-terrain vehicle - AKTransneftalso wished to adapt the machine with unrivaled datarogueto fit your needs. As a result, from 1995 to 1999, PZRA produced about 40 ZIL-497200 and ZIL-497205 vehicles, which were effectively used in the Ministry of Emergency Situations and RAO for about ten yearsUES of Russia.
, the Ministry of Railways, in the oil and gas complex during rescue and recovery work, as well as in other structures for the delivery of repair teams, rescue teams and special equipment in off-road conditions.
The ZIL-4972 model also had a modification with Cater87illar engines, which was called ZIL-4972N and was delivered by special order to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Here is how the driver who worked on it for 8 years spoke about this car:We used two cars in the work, once a week they made a flight to the mountains - 66 km of winter off-road. ZIL-4972 has 12 seats in the back and two in the cockpit, 2 berths, is equipped with a kitchen, a changing room, an onboard power station, providing 36 hours of autonomous operation. By passabilityUralscannot be compared in any way.
Sometimes, especially in wet snow, the ZIL-4972 is better than tracked vehicles. Compared toUral. , KAMAZ and whatever, when they assembled a convoy of cars, contractors resorted to find out whether ZIL-4972 would go or not. If it does, then they signed up to carry cargo in any blizzard. They put ZIL-4972 in front of the column, and forward.
Sometimes the ZIL-4972 column that stood up would catch up, walked around the virgin soil, and led it behind him. Once from the Verkhne-Opalsky springs they dragged out into the rain with one bunch of GAZ-66 and twoNivaattached to it. ...
What is now
Alas, since the beginning of zero new orders for unique six-wheeled vehicles have not been received - neither the Ministry of Emergency Situations nor RAOEECfor some reason, they are no longer interested in such a technique. Moreover, according to some reports, AMO ZIL did not wait for money to master full-fledged production of PPRA - in fact, this partly explains the fact that the unique machine, in fact, did not become serial.
Well, those cars that were still produced in Pravdinsk are gradually developing their resource, the mostyoungmore than 15 years of them. .. Utilized vehicles are slowly but surely being replaced by conventional KAMAZ trucks andUral- the technique, of course, is outstanding, but the whole spectrum of tasks is clearly not decisive. Repairing an oil pipeline or rescuing aircraft passengers in a total off-road environment - these problems, imperceptibly for most ordinary people, one day again risk becoming insurmountable, although they were solved a long time ago.
And resolved brilliantly.
However, the ZIL plant itself is now balancing on the verge of complete collapse and oblivion. In 2021, plans were announced to modernize the plant and createTechnopark ZIL. , as a result of which the production had to become more compact and move to new areas, and in fact become modern, flexible, more efficient logistically. .
However, this process, judging by the official website of ZIL , should have been completed in 2021, but so far no positive news has been reported on this score. The last old buildings of the legendary enterprise, which gave life to more than one domestic automobile plant and produced so many cars necessary for the country, are being demolished. January 31, 2021 initiative groupFOR ZILis going to hold a protest against the destruction of the plant's buildings. But it will hardly be possible to defend the plant in this way.
Quite a little time will pass, and we will only havemonumentslike this - the magnificent ZIL-4972.