The image of the traffic controller is quite strongly associated with Victory. The fighting is over, the Germans are being squeezed out in Berlin, and young girls with flags took to the streets to "regulate" the traffic. But they also worked during the war! And the service of the then "traffic cops" was no easier than that of the soldiers on the front line.
The State Automobile Inspectorate, that is, the traffic police, was created shortly before the bloodiest period in our history - in 1936. Before the war, her tasks were, by modern standards, familiar.
- fight against accidents and predatory use of vehicles;
- development of technical standards and measuring instruments for its operation;
- supervision over the training and education of driver's personnel;
- quantitative and qualitative accounting of the vehicle fleet.
In short, everything is as it is now: inspection, registration, driving licenses and operational-search work. But that department, which is now called the actual traffic police, did not exist. Service ORUD (department of traffic regulation) in the pre-war and war years of the GAI was not directly subordinate and was a separate structure. They were united much later - only in 1961.
With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the central traffic police station was evacuated from Moscow to Chkalov (now Orenburg). It was no longer up to the driver's qualifications and fines - from the first days of the war, the country turned into a single military camp. Cars were massively mobilized into the army, like people, collecting them at the motor vehicle fleet. A few employees of the State Traffic Inspectorate were engaged in this. Moreover, the traffic police got the right to detain vehicles right in the middle of the roads, and send the drivers themselves to a special commission, where the issue of their mobilization as drivers was decided.
After checking the technical condition of the machines, they were collected at the stations to be sent to the front. In Leningrad, for example, by the third day of the war, 60% of trucks and most of the cars were mobilized for the advanced units of the Red Army. By the end of the summer, the Ryazan region sent 68% of the available vehicles to the active army. In total, by October 1941, about 190 thousand cars were transferred to the army across the country - about 40% of the all-Union car park at the authorized time. These were the most reliable and suitable cars for the front-line needs.
It is not hard to guess that the remaining vehicle fleet in the rear consisted of very shabby vehicles that required constant repair and technical control. This was done by the same traffic police inspectors - on average, only 60 people per region or region.
About a quarter of the "traffic cops" staff were drafted into the army. At the front, the skills of the RUD employees came in handy - the road builders built military airfields, roads, bridges and other structures. Well, most just went to combat units.
Their places in the traffic police units were often occupied by women - graduates of the road institutes: Moscow, Omsk, Saratov and others.
So, the ex-chairman of the qualification commission Zinaida Lisovskaya became the head of the traffic police of the Omsk region. In Sverdlovsk, the regional traffic police was headed by Lydia Stefanskaya, who graduated from a road technical school. In Tomsk - Antonina Pinned her. Elena Sagirashvili coped well with the duties of the head of the traffic police of the Soviet and Frunzensky districts of Moscow for many years.
The qualification commission in the Saratov region was headed by Evgenia Breeva, and its members were Ekaterina Trubetskaya, Valentina Klyukvina and Esfir Birbraeva.
It is worth noting that in wartime the work of the traffic police to train drivers also underwent some changes. In accordance with the decree of the State Defense Committee of May 9, 1942, the People's Commissariat of Motor Transport was entrusted with training a large number of drivers for the Red Army. Thus, the State Traffic Inspectorate should have trained hundreds of times more drivers than before the war. In general, I had to work harder and faster.
After graduation, in 1942, I was sent to serve in the traffic police of the UNKVD in the Saratov region - a member of the qualification commission. The country needed drivers for the front. We, members of the qualification commission, traveled 300 kilometers from Saratov to the location of a military unit, which trained personnel of car drivers for active units of the Red Army. For one business trip lasting 30-35 days, we, two state traffic inspectors, had to take exams from 1000 cadet soldiers - in all sections of traffic rules, practical driving and car theory, write out and sign a driver's license and hand it over to everyone who went to the front. They worked, not knowing fatigue, for 18-20 hours a day.
We lived in a dugout ...
From the memoirs of Ekaterina Trubetskoy
At the beginning of 1942, the main work on mobilizing transport for the needs of the armed forces as a whole has been completed. At the same time, damaged and dismantled vehicles began to arrive in the rear en masse.
In the traffic police, among other things, special commissions were created at the regional executive committees for car repairs. There, the battered equipment was patched up and sent back to fight. The special commissions did not deal with the repair themselves - they coordinated the work of a network of auto repair shops. For example, in the Kirov region there were 20 "car services" that worked for the front.
And it was necessary to control seriously: workers and managers of auto enterprises were regularly punished for violations in the repair - in particular, only 505 people were brought to criminal responsibility for the entire war.
In addition, in 1942, the work on fuel economy was "hung up" on the traffic police. Thus, state traffic inspectors controlled the transfer of a part of the vehicle fleet to gas generators - in fact, "wood-burning" fuel systems . Well, with banal theft, that is, the drain of oil and fuel, we also had to fight.
In 1943, it became clear that there was not enough equipment for the offensive, therefore more and more severe requirements were imposed on the repairmen. The front needed more equipment, few resources, which means that everything that was somehow suitable for this had to be repaired.
In particular, if until the age of 43 the damaged gears of the checkpoint and other transmission units were considered non-repairable, then they began to be restored. By the way, the inspection in those years was very harsh - by today's standards, draconian. The coupon had to be received every six months.
But there was also a trophy transport! In the battle for Stalingrad alone, units of the Wehrmacht and the SS lost over 61,000 cars and motorcycles - some of them were repaired and registered in the USSR. What could not be repaired was dismantled and sent for spare parts.
What was suitable for use was distributed to motor vehicle fleets and other departments.
And what about the OSUD? During the war, in cities darkened for camouflage purposes, they sometimes turned out to be the only representatives of the police on the streets. And often they had to stop crimes, participate in the fight against looting, extinguish fires and save people from the rubble during the bombing. ..
And awards found heroes! For the feat, one of the first to be awarded the Order of the Red Star was the senior state traffic inspector of Moscow N. Rodyakin. It happened in one of the first bombings - an incendiary bomb fell on the roof of a garage, where there were more than 30 cars. While the firefighters who arrived in time were fighting the growing fire, Rodyakin again and again threw himself into the blazing garage and took out one car after another ..
. Each time the daredevil could die. But he, neglecting the danger, managed to get every car out of the garage. And literally a few hours later, during the next raid of enemy aircraft, he saved his colleague from the wreckage of the collapsed militia building. So Rodyakin can rightfully be considered the savior of both people and machines alike.
Hot days, blazing nights. The traffic police and ORUD workers in Moscow, Leningrad, Stalingrad and other cities, which were subjected to fierce bombing and shelling by the enemy, had no less of them than the soldiers and officers of the regular army. There were especially many women and girls in the ORUD. In Moscow, for example, there are more than a thousand! They quickly mastered the profession of a traffic controller, military weapons and courageously performed their duties.
Zinaida Mikhailova celebrated the end of the ten-year period on the night of June 22, 1941.
Like all Muscovites of her age, she first dug trenches on the outskirts of the capital, and then was enrolled in the ORUD. Her post was on the Arbat. The cars went on day and night. During the bombing, all the drivers and passengers fled headlong into the bomb shelter, and Zinaida remained at her post, because looters or enemy scouts could take advantage of such moments, giving signals to Hitler's pilots. More than once I had to use weapons.
So, it was during the bombing that two robbers were detained until the patrol approached. She died already in 1944, when there were no longer any bombings. Seeing the car with the bandits, which had just been reported to the posts, she blocked her path. ..
Zina was 20 years old.
The traffic controllers of besieged Leningrad served no less bravely. All 900 days and nights of the blockade, under regular bombing and artillery shelling, in hunger and cold, they stood at the post.
The famous "Road of Life" was served by a police detachment headed by S. S.
Lukyanenko. The detachment included employees of the external service, the traffic police and the criminal investigation department of Leningrad. When in November 1941 Lake Ladoga was frozen by ice, Leningraders flocked here - mostly women with children. They were arranged to the local residents, and then by hook or by crook they put them in cars that brought military cargo and food to Leningrad for the defenders and residents of the besieged city. Then an evacuation point was already created at the Borisova Griva station.
People who were weakened by hunger and cold arrived here from Leningrad. There were many children without parents. They were transferred to specially designated military trucks. Through Ladoga, along the "road" marked with landmarks, which was endlessly bombed by enemy aircraft, there was a stream of cars. The shells tore the ice, at any moment the car could disappear under water.
The workers of the ORUD, who were constantly on duty on the ice track, opened the doors of the cars in advance, helped to get out of them in case of danger, and installed new landmarks bypassing the holes. Even once driving along the ice road was already akin to a feat, and the traffic policemen were on duty there for many hours in a row under the bombardment in severe frosts.
In the long days of the war, courage and courage were sometimes required from the employees of the RUD service in the deepest rear. In Vladivostok, in the very first days, almost all of them were among the first to voluntarily go to the front. They were replaced by 50 girls.
Some were quite skeptical about them, but only at first.
For example, Katya Basanova, who came on a Komsomol ticket, more than once participated in the pursuit of criminals and detained them. It is no coincidence that, many thousands of kilometers from the front, she earned three military awards in the war. At the end of 1941, Tosya Kapranova joined the ORUD. Modest and shy among friends, she was adamant with offenders.
On July 28, 1942, while on night watch, she was hit by a truck driven by an armed criminal.
The archives have retained the names of a few. How many died? Probably thousands. Were they afraid to be on duty in the streets, waiting for an attack from a German soldier, or from their own marauder? They were probably afraid. But they stood at the post.
Such was the time - war ...
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